Personal pronouns can be used as subjects of a sentence. They replace a noun.
Singular Plural yo/ I nosotros (mas.), nosotras (fem.)/ we tú (informal), usted (formal)/ you
vosotros (mas.),vosotras (fem.), ustedes/ you
él/ he, ella/ she ellos, ellas/ they
Ud. is the abbreviation of usted and is the singular formal form of you. It is preferable to use Ud. in all other instances.
Vosotros is the familiar plural form of you that is only used in Spain. In all other Latin American countries, ustedes is used. NOTE: That ustedes is used for both informal and polite plural.
Nosotros, vosotros, ellos are used to refer to a male group or a group of mixed gender. However, nosotras, vosotras and ellas refer to only a group of females.
1. In Spanish, verb endings indicate the subject. Therefore, subject pronouns are often omitted.
- Abrimos a las ocho./ We open at eight.
- Cierran primero./ They close first.
2. In order to emphasize the subject, a pronoun is used. When used, it precedes the verb.
- Yo soy el mejor./ I am the best.
3. A pronoun is used in order to avoid confusion when verb forms present ambiguity.
hacía ejercicios./ was or were exercising.
4. Pronouns are always used when there are 2 verbs and 2 subjects.
- Yo soy feliz, y él no lo es./ I am happy, but he is not.
5. The pronoun it is rarely used.
- Es posible alcanzar esa meta./ It is possible to reach that goal.
- Está lloviendo./ It's raining.
6. In a question, subject pronouns can precede or follow the verb.
¿Ud. es el presidente? Are you the president? ¿Es Ud. el presidente?
7. Unlike English, personal pronouns are used in the following constructions:
- Como ella, él, ellos, ellas/ like her, him, them
- Entre tú y yo/ between you and me
- Excepto ella, él, ellos, ellas / except her, him, them
- Incluso/ incluyendo ella, él, ellos, ellas / including her, him, them
- Según ella, él, ellos, ellas / according to her, him, them
© Copyright 1999-2003 businessspanish.com. All rights reserved.