|Lessons |Verbs| Dialogs|Travel |Vocabulary |Grammar |Downloads |Links |Registration |Home |Comments|


The gerund is also called the present participle; however, the gerund is NOT the equivalent to the English gerund. It may NOT be used as a noun as in English. The English gerund is normally translated into Spanish as an infinitive.


  1. Saludar con un beso es habitual en la Argentina./ Greeting with a kiss is customary in Argentina.
  2. Abrir los negocios los domingos es raro./ Opening the stores on Sundays is rare.


1. The gerund is formed by removing the infinitive endings, -ar, -er, and -ir and by adding -ando to -ar and -iendo to -er and -ir as follows:

Infinitive Cancelar/ to cancel vender/ to sell salir/ to go out
Gerund Cancelando/ canceling vendiendo/ selling saliendo/ going out


2. If the -er or -ir verb stem ends in a vowel, add -yendo instead of -iendo to form the gerund as follows:

oír/ to hear oyendo/ listening
caer/ to fall cayendo/ falling

LESSONS: Invoicing I & Invoicing Ia.


There are many irregular verbs, but we are going to list only the following:

decir/ to tell diciendo
dormir/ to sleep durmiendo
pedir/ to request pidiendo
venir/ to come viniendo
ir/ to go yendo
poder/ to be able pudiendo
sentir/ to feel sintiendo
mentir/ to lie mintiendo
preferir/ to prefer prefiriendo
servir/ to serve sirviendo
repetir/ to repeat repitiendo
seguir/ to continue siguiendo
reír/ to laugh riendo

LESSONS: Invoicing II & Invoicing IIa.


1. The gerund is used in the present progressive.


  • Estoy estudiando./ I am studying.
  • Ana está durmiendo./ Ana is sleeping.

LESSONS: Invoicing III & Invoicing IIIa.

2. The gerund is used as an adverb to describe another verb.


  • Terminamos nuestro proyecto gritando./ Screaming, we finished our project.
  • Nuestro cliente nos pagó sonriendo./ Smiling, our client paid us.

3. The gerund is used to express how something is done and also as a modifying phrase that is subordinate to another verb.


  • Bajando los precios ganaremos la competencia./ By lowering the prices, we'll beat the competition.
  • Abriendo más sucursales tendremos más clientes./ By opening more branches, we'll have more customers.

NOTE: When a sentence begins with a verbal phrase and is positive, the gerund is used. However, to form the negative of a sentence beginning with a verbal phrase, the preposition sin is used instead of the word no. Also note that sin needs to be followed by an infinitive (bajar and abrir)

  • Sin bajar los precios no ganaremos la competencia./ Without lowering the prices, we cannot beat the competition.
  • Sin abrir más sucursales no tendremos más clientes./ Without opening more branches, we won't have more customers.

LESSONS: Invoicing IV & Invoicing IVa.

4. To express a continuous action, the gerund is used with the verbs continuar/ to continue and seguir/ to follow.


  • El acusado seguía hablando aunque el juez se lo había prohibido./ The accused kept on talking although the judge had prohibited him to do so.
  • Las ganancias continuaron incrementando durante la recesión. / The profits continued to increase during the recession.

5. To describe an action in progress, the gerund is used with the verbs andar/ to go or walk and ir/ to go.


  • El reportero anda difamando mi persona./ The reporter goes around slandering my character.
  • La sociedad va destruyendo el medio ambiente./ The society goes on destroying the environment.

LESSONS: Invoicing V & Invoicing Va.

|Lessons |Verbs| Dialogs|Travel |Vocabulary |Grammar |Downloads |Links |Registration |Home |Comments|

© Copyright 1999-2003 businessspanish.com. All rights reserved.