The gerund is also called the present participle; however, the gerund is NOT the equivalent to the English gerund. It may NOT be used as a noun as in English. The English gerund is normally translated into Spanish as an infinitive.
- Saludar con un beso es habitual en la Argentina./ Greeting with a kiss is customary in Argentina.
- Abrir los negocios los domingos es raro./ Opening the stores on Sundays is rare.
HOW TO FORM THE GERUND
1. The gerund is formed by removing the infinitive endings, -ar, -er, and -ir and by adding -ando to -ar and -iendo to -er and -ir as follows:
Infinitive Cancelar/ to cancel vender/ to sell salir/ to go out Gerund Cancelando/ canceling vendiendo/ selling saliendo/ going out
2. If the -er or -ir verb stem ends in a vowel, add -yendo instead of -iendo to form the gerund as follows:
Infinitive Gerund oír/ to hear oyendo/ listening caer/ to fall cayendo/ falling
LESSONS: Invoicing I & Invoicing Ia.
VERBOS IRREGULARES / Irregular Verbs
There are many irregular verbs, but we are going to list only the following:
Infinitive Gerund decir/ to tell diciendo dormir/ to sleep durmiendo pedir/ to request pidiendo venir/ to come viniendo ir/ to go yendo poder/ to be able pudiendo sentir/ to feel sintiendo mentir/ to lie mintiendo preferir/ to prefer prefiriendo servir/ to serve sirviendo repetir/ to repeat repitiendo seguir/ to continue siguiendo reír/ to laugh riendo
LESSONS: Invoicing II & Invoicing IIa.
WHEN TO USE THE GERUND:
1. The gerund is used in the present progressive.
- Estoy estudiando./ I am studying.
- Ana está durmiendo./ Ana is sleeping.
LESSONS: Invoicing III & Invoicing IIIa.
2. The gerund is used as an adverb to describe another verb.
- Terminamos nuestro proyecto gritando./ Screaming, we finished our project.
- Nuestro cliente nos pagó sonriendo./ Smiling, our client paid us.
3. The gerund is used to express how something is done and also as a modifying phrase that is subordinate to another verb.
- Bajando los precios ganaremos la competencia./ By lowering the prices, we'll beat the competition.
- Abriendo más sucursales tendremos más clientes./ By opening more branches, we'll have more customers.
NOTE: When a sentence begins with a verbal phrase and is positive, the gerund is used. However, to form the negative of a sentence beginning with a verbal phrase, the preposition sin is used instead of the word no. Also note that sin needs to be followed by an infinitive (bajar and abrir)
- Sin bajar los precios no ganaremos la competencia./ Without lowering the prices, we cannot beat the competition.
- Sin abrir más sucursales no tendremos más clientes./ Without opening more branches, we won't have more customers.
LESSONS: Invoicing IV & Invoicing IVa.
4. To express a continuous action, the gerund is used with the verbs continuar/ to continue and seguir/ to follow.
- El acusado seguía hablando aunque el juez se lo había prohibido./ The accused kept on talking although the judge had prohibited him to do so.
- Las ganancias continuaron incrementando durante la recesión. / The profits continued to increase during the recession.
5. To describe an action in progress, the gerund is used with the verbs andar/ to go or walk and ir/ to go.
- El reportero anda difamando mi persona./ The reporter goes around slandering my character.
- La sociedad va destruyendo el medio ambiente./ The society goes on destroying the environment.
LESSONS: Invoicing V & Invoicing Va.
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